Template describes the structure and behaviour of your game object (item, monster, construction,...). As a programmer you can think of it as a Class. Template has to have a unique name and may contains a set of parameters.
Parameter describes a part of a Document, storing some value. Each parameter has a name and a type. Type can be simple like string, int, float, bool or a reference to any other Template. As a programmer you can think of parameter as a Field or Property of the Class.
Document is a unique instance of a Template (Specific Item: Hunter's Bow, Gold Bar,...), which has it's own parameter values. Think of it as an instance of a Class as a programmer.
Component is a simple Template, which doesn't have it's own Documents and can exists only inside of another Document.
Enum is enumerated type, which you can create and use in Data Editor.